Bloggers are faced with the reality of dealing with capitalistic patriarchic structures while fighting against it. The ongoing visibility of the hashtag on Twitter is an example of how the narratives constructed by particular publics are lasting and how particular stories carry symbolic weight even when the events lie in the past. Since 2009, the #OscarGrant hashtag has been used in conjunction with other hashtags that mark the names of Black people subject to extrajudicial killings. The murders of Kiwane Carrington, Ramarley Graham, Aaron Campbell, Rekia Boyd, Aiyana Jones, and Raymond Allen were discussed and debated by means of co-occurring hashtags between 2009 and 2012, but it was the 2012 murder of Trayvon Martin that solidified Twitter hashtags as a crucial organizing tool for racial justice activists. That was just the beginning of what would become a resounding chorus calling for justice. Despite the Florida “stand your ground” law that Zimmerman’s defense successfully used, Alexander was found guilty of aggravated assault with a lethal weapon and sentenced to twenty years in prison. Please join us in calling on Angela Corey, Florida’s 4th District State’s Attorney, to investigate my son’s murder and prosecute George Zimmerman for the shooting and killing of Trayvon Martin. Simpson, Black Femininity and Sexuality: black women cannot show off their bodies in anyway because it is perceived as slutty. Florida? The #BlackLivesMatter hashtag on Instagram has been overrun by people posting black squares on Blackout Tuesday. With the increasing popularity of the hashtag, more and more people were able to see posts about individuals’ experiences as a person of … … They were posted on social media networks with the hashtag Growing Up Black. Also, in the posttrial network we see some carryover in types of popular accounts from previous periods. Would his shooter have been arrested? On the day after the acquittal, for example, Rihanna’s short tweet “Only in America! Preserving black oral culture online is a key part of the cultural practice. On For Harriet, the bloggers were less concerned about her identity as a feminist than in her agency to declare herself as a feminist. The Zimmerman camp’s use of PayPal and later Twitter, and the “trayvoning” meme, illustrate some of the ways hashtags and social media can be used to defend or dismiss injustices even as counterpublics work to resolve them. livestreamed police sweeping neighborhoods and showering black residents with tear gas. The Instagram hashtag limit may guide your choices for the hashtags you use when posting content to your social media accounts. Racial justice activists in Oakland and beyond quickly linked the murder of Grant to the 1991 police beating of Rodney King, which was also captured on video by a witness, who in that case filmed with a trendy-for-the-time 8mm Sony Handycam. The #TrayvonMartin hashtag continues to trend each year on Martin’s birthday, as well as on the anniversary of the day he was killed. Really?..everytime you speak you r slandering a young man who can no longer speak TRUTH. However, unlike the similar accounts in the pretrial network, the @realWillSmith donation-for-retweet promise was extremely short-lived, lasting only hours, compared to several days for the accounts that trended in the pretrial network. @NatJackEsq @parksesq and @JasmineEsquire” were retweeted widely in the network. Florini sees TWiB! Notably, this set of Black celebrity influencers is markedly younger than those that appeared in the pretrial network. team to go there and report. Maria Roach created a petition on March 17 that eventually received 500,000 signatures. Racialized PositivityThe project was a affirming in many ways but also played into respectability politics, as the positive images often conformed to white neoliberal standards of normal behavior. RT to get #GeorgeZimmerman arrested!” And @PonderonThat was one of many users who brought the petition to Combs’s attention, tweeting, “@iamDiddy pls sign &RT the petition to bring #TrayvonMartin’s killer to justice. TWiB! The top 20 most retweeted accounts included those of Martin’s mother, Sybrina Fulton (@SybrinaFulton), the Martin family lawyer, Benjamin Crump (@attorneycrump), the journalist Anderson Cooper (@andersoncooper, @AC360), and Black celebrities, including Gabrielle Union, Taraji P. Henson, Tichina Arnold, and Diddy Combs. In addition, the culture of hashtag has developed due to recent Black Lives Matter movement. To render this large network tractable, we limited our analysis to tweets generated by users who were retweeted or mentioned at least once (thus eliminating network isolates) and divided the data into three networks, each corresponding to important milestones in the history of Trayvon Martin’s death and the subsequent trial and acquittal of George Zimmerman. Of the top 100 co-occurring hashtag combinations, more than half — 55 — included the names of other African Americans killed by police violence or by white Americans. Snopes, the crowd-sourced fact-checking site, quickly pointed out the false equivalencies in the meme, noting that in the Lion case the victim was not targeted for his identity or for “looking suspicious” but was robbed, the perpetrators were initially unknown, and as soon as law enforcement identified the perpetrators, which was swiftly, they were arrested, charged, tried, and found guilty. It’s been nearly two weeks and the Sanford Police have refused to arrestGeorge Zimmerman. And oppositional consciousness represents the mindset of oppressed peoples like people of color who see their identity in opposition to a dominant culture and fight for their authentic representation. #TrayvonMartin” became enormously popular, the exclamation of exasperation and critique of the U.S. system as a whole resonating with members of the network. For example, your own talent brand team can post photos and updates and use your company hashtag. Posts. In May and June, the hashtag was tweeted an average of 3.7 million times a day. He says race was not a factor in George Zimmerman killing Martin. These are also not traditional journalistic spaces that might allow for a public confrontation of the work. Video game activism requires the mobilization of both users and designers. Seeing this as Liquid Journalism (Bruns 2010, Deuz 2006) suggests that the contributors can be involved in the production of news around these tragedies in how they choose to react to the coverage. Grant had no weapon and was already subdued when Mehserle pulled his service weapon and fired. Thus, over time, the hashtag #TrayvonMartin both reflects an ongoing commitment to honor the life and memory of Trayvon Martin himself and references a larger pattern of systemic injustice across the United States. TWiB! Further, Martin’s innocence is continuously reentrenched through language that focuses on his youth (“young life,” “child”), as is the maliciousness of his death, both in descriptions of the individual actions of Zimmerman and in the characterizations of those who sought to defend him (“begged for his life,” “murdered,” “monsters”). Playing is simple (or is it?). The praxis requires that we strive to be fully engaged in that work. Their social media channels are used in a everyday ways that create familiarity between the hosts and their audience. For example, in addition to the network data described above, we also captured a ranked list of the most common hashtags appearing in tweets with #TrayvonMartin during our data collection window. Tweets containing #TrayvonMartin continued to appear at a rate of approximately 30 to 100 per day until the following February, when several thousand tweets appeared on February 5, 2014, the day that would have been Trayvon Martin’s nineteenth birthday. Co-occurrence helps us tell the story of how members of the #TrayvonMartin network understood Martin’s killing in relation to other stories they deemed important both at the time and in the following years. Steele sees Digital Black Feminism being expressed in three ways: form, theoretical orientation, and praxis. FormForm takes on new meaning in Digital Black Feminism, and the community uses technology and media in new ways. The names were those of other children, including Tamir Rice and Jordan Davis, and many men and women, including, most frequently, Michael Brown and Eric Garner, whose killings at the hands of police happened almost exactly one year after George Zimmerman’s acquittal. The NAACP followed up on its first tweet with an actionable one, asking those in the network to continue to “seek justice for #TrayvonMartin” by signing a petition asking for a Department of Justice inquiry, while @YourAnonNews levied a critique of the trial, tweeting “#TrayvonMartin was put on trial, in effect, for his own murder and found guilty,” while also sharing the Trayvon Martin tribute song released by Yasiin Bey, Dead Prez, and Mikeflo. Though the NAACP, which is a legacy Black civil rights organization, and Anonymous, which at the time was one of the most followed radical activist accounts across different issue areas, may seem like strange bedfellows, here they both serve to communicate the all too common miscarriage of justice that the Zimmerman acquittal reflected. We see these efforts reflected in the emergent pretrial network leadership. On March 23, basketball star LeBron James tweeted a photo of himself and Miami Heat teammates donning hoodies and bowing their heads before gearing up for a game against the Detroit Pistons. In addition to these accounts discussing the Zimmerman trial, the trial network also includes bots and other opportunistic accounts that exploited public interest in the trial to make money or promote products. This is clearly a systemic issue. After March 13 there was a significant uptick in petition signatures once celebrities, including Spike Lee and Mia Farrow, began to tweet about it. JUSTICE FOR #TrayvonMartin NOW!!!! The same year that Martin was killed, Alexander, a Black woman, fired a warning shot to scare away her abusive husband in Florida. Xbox Live forums were also a place of activism for both #gamergate and Black Lives Matter among female gamers, who carve out their own communities there. Indeed, the twenty most commonly co-occurring hashtags also include calls for justice for Martin in particular (#JusticeForTrayvon) and the Black community in general (#BlackLivesMatter). The posttrial network includes 85,914 tweets sent by 61,620 unique users connected by 79,627 retweets and mentions. @AC360 8p, It is notable that these two Cooper tweets were most frequently shared and responded to in the network, for Cooper also tweeted several tweets during the same time frame that received less attention and interaction. Twitter was deployed again in the aftermath of Mehserle’s trial, this time to help demonstrators avoid run-ins with police. Eighty people were arrested, but the number might have been higher were it not for fast-acting, Twitter-savvy organizers. produces seven different podcasts on a range of topics, and they get over a million downloads a month of their main program. They called out the contradiction in the movement among men in the movement who weren’t supporting the black women who were dying at the same time. In particularly, there is a specific notion of religiosity in the black community that mediates your engagement with movements that might not otherwise share that religiosity. This eighteen-month period allows us to examine themes that emerged immediately after Zimmerman’s acquittal, as well as those that surfaced after the initial media frenzy over the verdict dissipated. Over time, #TrayvonMartin transformed from a signifier of Martin himself to a symbol of the broader condition of racial bias and injustice in America. Similarly, hashtags were used for the #MeToo social movement. Email us ️ In the posttrial network Martin’s case is most frequently connected, through co-occurring hashtags, to cases of police brutality. Natalie Jackson: "A black 17-year-old child should be able to walk home from the store & not be shot." @AC360 8p, 10p.” Notably, the latter tweet received only about one-tenth the response of Cooper’s first-person, “What I question …” tweet, reflecting the prioritizing in the network of news narratives that legitimized Martin’s victimhood and connected it directly to racism. One of the first and most visible instances of the shift to digital- and social media–based racial justice organizing followed the 2009 murder of Oscar Grant by Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) police officer Johannes Mehserle Grant, a 22-year-old Black father on his way home from celebrating New Year’s Eve with friends, was shot in the back by Mehserle in the early morning hours of January 1, 2009, after BART police responded to calls of a fight on the train. In addition, the culture of hashtag has developed due to recent Black Lives Matter movement. #Spawn4Good ( Twitch, #Spawn4Me ran a live tele-a-thin style stream to crowd fund money in support of families affected by police brutality. Any errors here are my own. Having a talent brand hashtag is not only a great way to market your efforts, but it helps you create a social media stream reflecting your company culture from different points of view. This is important to individuals who find their identity and community online, where they can perform their blackness in ways they can’t do offline. These women are understanding the role that their participation in culture is in contrast with their research and this pushes the movements forward. Because TWiB! Dozens of users tweeted messages directly at Combs asking him to use his platform to draw attention to the case, while others accused Combs of failing in his moral duties as a Black star who vacationed in Florida as the Martin family struggled to gain national attention. It took six weeks and a coordinated on- and offline effort by Martin’s family, their legal team, and activists before Zimmerman was indicted. And the images contribute to the depiction of a broad spectrum of the elements of black lives mattering, and we should be seeing them as a whole, not just good and bad. Other highly retweeted accounts discussing the trial included those of Black celebrities (such as Gabrielle Union, @itsgabrielleu, 551 retweets and mentions) and the Black media outlets BET and BET News (@BET and @BETNews, 387 and 451 retweets and mentions, respectively). Following this initial surge of activity, there was a small uptick in tweets containing #TrayvonMartin when then president Barack Obama spoke about Trayvon Martin and racial profiling in a White House press briefing. Tap on the Hashtags to view more related famous hashtags to let your next post a boost. In general, #iftheygunnedmedown was successful at raising consciousness about media bias, and the negative portrayal of black culture. But also your employees can use the same hashtag to share their work experiences, making your company more … The juxtaposition of the treatment of Alexander, who had been physically threatened by her husband and who physically hurt no one, with that of Zimmerman was used in the network to point out the inconsistent ways in which laws are applied to Black and white victims and defendants. Black Lives Matter | A hashtag that turned into a rights movement . It was used to spread awareness and empower people to fight for gender equality. Would they tear me down or build me up? Because of the visibility of the hosts, they connected on Twitter to a number of different networks and publics like Black Twitter, feminist, and progressive networks, as well as being followed by mainstream journalists who all allow for a very broad audience. If you're looking for the best wedding hashtags to share with guests on your big day, this list of 100 trending wedding hashtag ideas has funny wedding hashtags to personalized wedding hashtags. Activism is not just rooted in game development. She found that 98% of the images contributed were black—half men, half women. We discuss how members of the #TrayvonMartin network made sense of the facts of the case and framed the story with counterpublic narratives that highlighted the epidemics of racial stereotypes, fear, and anti-Black violence that resulted in Martin’s death. Are the media choosing problematic images to justify the reason why the person was killed? Zimmerman’s acquittal the following year sparked the Black Lives Matter movement. Approximately three-quarters of the tweets in the posttrial network were sent in the days immediately following Zimmerman’s acquittal as advocacy organizations like the NAACP, Black media outlets, and celebrities like Rihanna commented on the verdict, subsequent protests, and ongoing legal action against Zimmerman. Together they make a case for a movement for Black lives. We see this in how the story was linked, in particular, to other cases of anti-Black violence that occurred both before and after Martin’s killing. On March 8 the petition was turned over to Martin’s parents, whose grief, as articulated in their open letter on the petition, galvanized the public, making it the most popular petition on the site for several years. Using what political sociologist Paolo Gerbaudo calls the “choreography of assembly,” which combines traditional on-the-ground activism with technology-based coordination, Oakland residents tweeted the positions of police blockades and helped those on the ground navigate the city streets. Feel free … Other names co-occurring with #Trayvon Martin include #RenishaMcBride, #FreddieGray, #WalterScott, #KendrickJohnson, #JohnCrawford, #AntonioMartin, and #RekiaBoyd. For example, @BritiniDWrites tweeted, “Dear @IamDiddy a FL man MURDERED a Black teen named #TrayvonMartin in Feb & still isn’t arrested. While those invested in issues of racial justice have always deployed media strategies to produce counternarratives opposing white supremacist logic, the advent of Twitter has significantly changed the ways in which ordinary people and activists do their work. Amidst the unrest in Ferguson, CNN was reporting that everything was quiet one night while This Week in Blackness (TWiB!) In addition to petitions, Black organizations such as the Black Youth Project, Dream Defenders, and Color of Change began to champion Martin through other online and on-the-ground campaigns and actions. A year and a half later, on July 8, 2010, Mehserle was convicted of involuntary manslaughter, not second-degree murder, which prompted yet more protests in the city of Oakland. 06/15/2015 11:24 am ET Updated Dec 06, 2017 There isn't much that I can say about the Rachel Dolezal situation that hasn't already been said. In the question and answer after the panel, one participant articulated this as a tactic of witnessing the has long been a part of black culture and activism. Notably, Weiner has a fairly modest following on Twitter but was elevated in this network owing to his close proximity and access to the case. This advocacy reflects the diversity of ways in which Twitter became a useful tool in the aftermath of Martin’s killing. Critical Race Theory posits that racism is daily and embedded in American society. The difference in the kinds of engagement that made Robert Zimmerman and Benjamin Crump central to the network reveals the importance of looking beyond network data to the ways that publics and counterpublics use the technological tools available to them to elevate or challenge particular discourses. Complicated allegiances are in tension with white feminists. The petition was the most successful and visible one, but other petitions were created to demand justice for Trayvon Martin as well. 848.9k Followers, 822 Following, 4,740 Posts - See Instagram photos and videos from EBC (@embracingblackculture) On February 26, 2012, 17-year-old Trayvon Martin walked to a convenience store near his father’s home in Sanford, Florida, for Skittles and a drink. Theoretical OrientationAgency has always been of prime importance to black feminists. The effort was unique mobilization of black gamers, but also received backlash from others arguing that Twitch was not a place to do this activism. Follow. Unfortunately, digital black feminism has also been excluded from traditional norms of black feminism. Black Lives Matter was started by three queer women of color. There is a shift away from elite notions of knowledge. They were invited on spaces like Al Jazeera and MSNBC to represent their coverage. We mark the digital documentation and activism around Grant’s January 2009 killing by Bay Area Rapid Transit police as a starting point for contemporary digital racial justice organizing. Not today,” and the NAACP tweeted a quote from the organization’s chair, Roslyn Brock, that read “Today, justice failed #TrayvonMartin and his family.” Both tweets reflect the deep disappointment and anger felt in counterpublic communities regarding the Zimmerman verdict. This panel features four anti-racist, feminist scholars, showcasing how we as researchers take on the role of documenting and amplifying the work that activists are doing already online. #TrayvonMartin” became enormously popular, the exclamation of exasperation and critique of the U.S. system as a whole resonating with members of the network. One person anonymously submitted footage to local television station KTVU, which broadcast the unedited video and later posted it to YouTube. We are trying the best to update the database with pupular and trending hashtags with our algorithm. These included a tweet in which the anchor rephrased his initial reaction as a rhetorical question that did more discursive avoidance of blame attribution: “The shooting of #TrayvonMartin. It’s important to understand how this is expressed in different ways online. Let’s keep it that way. Social media is a form of signifying black racial identity that indexes black racial culture. One consequence of the work of this publicist was that Kevin Cunningham, a white graduate of Howard University Law School, learned of the case and started a petition demanding Zimmerman’s indictment. Remarkably, after Rice, Davis, Brown, and Garner, #OscarGrant is the next most frequently hashtagged name beside #TrayvonMartin. They streamed constantly until they had hit their fundraising goals. George zimmerman is the new johannes mehserle smh #rip #trayvonmartin #oscargrant. From the popularity of Anderson Cooper in the network we can see how the counterpublic selected which types of mainstream news narratives and frames about anti-Black violence to spread and support. The juxtaposition of the treatment of Marissa Alexander, who had been physically threatened by her husband and who physically hurt no one, with that of George Zimmerman was used in the network to point out the inconsistent ways in which laws are applied to Black and white victims and defendants. This article is excerpted from “#HashtagActivism: Networks of Race and Gender Justice,” which is freely available via open access. Sarah J. Jackson, Moya Bailey, and Brooke Foucault Welles are the authors of “#HashtagActivism: Networks of Race and Gender Justice,” from which this article is excerpted. Illuminating the bold ideas and voices that make up the MIT Press's expansive catalog. First it was #oscargrant. The most popular account, with nearly twice the retweets and mentions of any other account in the network, belonged to Jeff Weiner, a central Florida journalist who live-tweeted the trial from inside the courtroom (@JeffWeinerOS, with 2,094 retweets and mentions). Top 100 Hashtags on Instagram with the total number of posting on Instagram. And Sarah Florini talks about This Week in Blackness’s brand of citizen journalism around Ferguson. Responses to the Robert Zimmerman’s tweet ranged from “@rzimmermanjr slander? 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