The works of noted practitioners Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung are particularly influential in this field, but other approaches to psychology may be integrated as well. TS: "Psychoanalysis was born of a basic lie: There was no therapy, only an intimate conversation between two persons." The subtler forms of psychoanalytic criticism make allowance for ambiguous and contradictory significances, rather than merely discovering hidden sexual symbolism in literary works. There have been a few recent reports on the general decline of traditional psychoanalysis: So why has psych… Early critics of psychoanalysis believed that its theories were based too little on quantitative and experimental research, and too much on the clinical case study method. We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. Psychoanalysis and the Cinema By Nasrullah Mambrol on August 5, 2017 • ( 4). In "Psychoanalysis: From Theory to Practice, Past to Present," Plaut summarizes the central theory of psychoanalysis well, dividing it into five distinct categories: dynamic, economic, developmental, structural, and adaptive. Luce Irigaray criticised psychoanalysis, employing Jacques Derrida’s concept of phallogocentrism to describe the exclusion of the woman from Freudian and Lacanian psychoanalytical theories. Peter Medawar, an immunologist, said in 1975 that psychoanalysis is the “most stupendous intellectual confidence trick of the twentieth century”. Role of CBT in Enhancement of Emotional Intelligence. As the psychoanalytic researcher Drew Westen puts it, “Critics have typically focused on a version of psychoanalytic theory—circa 1920 at best—that few contemporary analysts find compelling. He studied the three major aspects that are responsible for creating human reactions. However, all variants endorse, at least to a certain deg », View all related items in Oxford Reference », Search for: 'psychoanalytic criticism' in Oxford Reference ». Frank Cioffi, author of Freud and the Question of Pseudoscience, cites false claims of a sound scientific verification of the theory and its elements as the strongest basis for classifying the work of Freud and his school as pseudoscience. One consequence is that some critics offer criticism of specific ideas present only in one or more theories, rather than in all of psychoanalysis while not rejecting other premises of psychoanalysis. It argues that literary texts, like dreams, express the secret unconscious desires and anxieties of the author, that a literary work is a … Psychoanalysis grew in its influence over the course of the early twentieth century, but it was not without its critics. Supporting criticism regarding the validity of psychoanalytic therapeutic technique, numerous outcome studies have shown that its efficacy is related to the quality of the therapist, rather than the psychoanalytic school or technique or training, while a French 2004 report from INSERM (Study removed by decision of the French Health Minister Douste-Blazy), says instead, that psychoanalysis therapy is far less effective than other psychotherapies (among which Cognitive behavioral therapy). A form of literary interpretation that employs the terms of psychoanalysis (the unconscious, repression, the Oedipus complex, etc.) The book Anti-Freud: Karl Kraus’s Criticism of Psychoanalysis and Psychiatry, originally published under the name Karl Kraus and the Soul Doctors, portrayed Kraus as a harsh critic of Sigmund Freud and of psychoanalysis in general. They use the sam… in order to illuminate aspects of literature in its … Some proponents of psychoanalysis suggest that its concepts and theories are more akin to those found in the humanities than those proper to the physical and biological/medical sciences, though Freud himself tried to base his clinical formulations on a hypothetical neurophysiology of energy transformations. A more sophisticated study in this vein is E. Wilson's The Wound and the Bow (1941). The papers in this volume contain the essentials of that criticism, especially "The Theory of Psychoanalysis," a lecture series given at Fordham University in 1912. As withsom… C. There are no female evolutionary psychologists. The Concise Oxford Companion to English Literature ». Freud presented a structural model of a human personality. Michel Foucault and Gilles Deleuze, as a sociological analysis without meaning to criticize, claimed that the institution of psychoanalysis has become a center of power and that its confessional techniques resemble the Christian tradition. The theory significantly influenced literary critics as they apply the approach of a tripartite model for analyzing the literary characters and its actions. Together with Gilles Deleuze, Félix Guattari criticised the Oedipal structure. […] notice of the dominant tone in the most respected associations: consider Dr. Mendel and the Drs Stéphane, the state of fury that is theirs, and their literally police-like appeal at the thought that someone might try to escape the Oedipal dragnet. It ignores non-genetic factors in determining human behavior. From:  Key Factors Determining our Emotional Health. Noam Chomsky has also criticized psychoanalysis for lacking a scientific basis. The advent of post‐structuralism has tended to cast doubt upon the authority of the psychoanalytic critic who claims to unveil a true ‘latent’ meaning behind the disguises of a text's ‘manifest’ contents. Some significant criticisms are listed below. Sections in this article: Introduction ; Psychoanalytic Therapy and Theory; Criticisms of and Changes in Freudian Psychoanalysis; Bibliography Oedipus is one of those things that becomes all the more dangerous the less people believe in it; then the cops are there to replace the high priests. Psychoanalysis arose from an appreciation of the power of people talking directly to one another about questions that matter and issues that are difficult to understand. When reading the news, interacting on social media, or in everyday conversation, many of us seek to understand “what motivates people?”. ». Psychoanalytic Criticism Psychoanalytic criticism adopts the methods of "reading" employed by Freud and later theorists to interpret texts. Psychoanalysis, influential method of treating mental disorders, shaped by psychoanalytic theory, which emphasizes unconscious mental processes and is sometimes described as ‘depth psychology.’ The psychoanalytic movement originated in the clinical observations and formulations of Austrian psychiatrist Sigmund Freud. Thus Derrida thinks that even though Freud remains within a theologico-metaphysical tradition of “phallogocentrism”, Freud nonetheless criticizes that tradition. Peer Commentary. Other commentators, such as Edward Timms, author of Karl Kraus – Apocalyptic Satirist, have argued that Kraus respected Freud, though with reservations about the application of some of his theories, and that his views were far less black-and-white than Szasz suggests. Ricoeur classified psychoanalysis as a hermeneutics of suspicion. psychoanalytic criticism  Some theoretical criticism of psychoanalysis is based on the argument that it is over simplistic and reductive, because it reduces everything to the idea that we are all driven by our sexuality and does not take into consideration other factors. Psychoanalytic criticism has some distinction from psychoanalysis in interpreting behavior. People like the Freudo-Marxist Wilhelm Reich redress this, as does Carl Gustav Jung by factoring in economic and political factors (such as relationship to the means of production in the case of Reich), culture and ideas like the paranormal in the case of Jung respectively. Two later papers-"Freud and Jung: Contrasts" and the introduction to a book by W. M. Kranefeldt-together form a basis for further study of Jung's reassessment of psychoanalysis. Yet it celebrates the side of Freud which emphasises the open-ended and improvisatory nature of psychoanalysis, and its methodical and ethical demand that the testimony of the analysand should be given prominence in the practice of analysis. A form of literary interpretation that employs the terms of psychoanalysis (the unconscious, repression, the Oedipus complex, etc.) One of the largest criticisms of the psychoanalytic theory is that it places far to much emphasis on childhood. Which of the following is a criticism of evolutionary psychology? Psychoanalytic literary criticism is literary criticism or literary theory which, in method, concept, or form, is influenced by the tradition of psychoanalysis begun by Sigmund Freud. Between two-thirds and three-fourths of “neurotics” would recover naturally; this was no different from therapy clients. Many of the concepts central to Freud's theories are subjective, and as such, difficult to test scientifically. Freud maintained a narrow focus on innate biological drives as the primary motivating force b… Psychoanalytic Criticism Psychoanalytic criticism originated in the work of Austrian psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud, who pioneered the technique of psychoanalysis. Karl Popper argued that psychoanalysis is a pseudoscience because its claims are not testable and cannot be refuted; that is, they are not falsifiable. More profitable are analyses of fictional characters, beginning with Freud's own suggestions about Prince Hamlet, later developed by his British disciple Ernest Jones: Hamlet feels unable to kill his uncle because Claudius's crimes embody his own repressed incestuous and patricidal wishes, in a perfect illustration of the Oedipus complex. D. It places too much emphasis on genetic factors in determining human behavior. Freud’s insistence, in the first chapter of The Ego and the Id, that philosophers will recoil from his theory of the unconscious is clearly a forbear to Derrida’s understanding of metaphysical ‘self-presence’. (1856—1939) founder of psychoanalysis, See all related overviews in Oxford Reference René Laforgue reported Martha Freud saying, “I must admit that if I did not realize how seriously my husband takes his treatments, I should think that psychoanalysis is a form of pornography.” To Martha there was something vulgar about psychoanalysis, and she dissociated herself from it. Psychoanalysis and its theoretical underpinnings have had an enormous influence on modern psychology and psychiatry and in fields as diverse as literary theory, anthropology, and film criticism. Discusses the controversy surrounding psychoanalysis. Each of these intellectual and socially engaged activities is based on premises (about text, psyche and culture) that undermine familiar or received wisdom. These studies also have not confirmed that such traits in adults result from childhood experiences (Fisher & Greenberg, 1977, p. 399). What is crucial to modern psychoanalytic theory and practice is the power of the unconscious and the transference phenomenon. Derrida also turns some of these ideas against Freud, to reveal tensions and contradictions in his work. Literature, View all reference entries But is this fair? If you continue to use this site we will assume that you are happy with it. Some even feel derision for Freud's school of thought. Among philosophers, Karl Popper argued that Freud’s theory of the unconscious was not falsifiable and therefore not scientific. (Borch-Jacobsen 1996). Recent developments in neuroscience have resulted in one side arguing that it has provided a biological basis for unconscious emotional processing in line with psychoanalytic theory i.e., neuropsychoanalysis (Westen & Gabbard 2002), while the other side argues that such findings make psychoanalytic theory obsolete and irrelevant. For example, the philosopher Paul Ricoeur argued that psychoanalysis can be considered a type of textual interpretation or hermeneutics. For example, although Freud defines religion and metaphysics as displacements of the identification with the father in the resolution of the Oedipal complex, Derrida insists in The Postcard: From Socrates to Freud and Beyond that the prominence of the father in Freud’s own analysis is itself indebted to the prominence given to the father in Western metaphysics and theology since Plato. Other schools of psychology have produced alternative methods for psychotherapy, including behavior therapy, cognitive therapy, Gestalt therapy and person-centered psychotherapy. Psychoanalysts have often complained about the significant lack of theoretical agreement among analysts of different schools. Sigmund Freud On a psychological analysis of characters the psychoanalytic criticism of Sigmund Freud plays an important role to reveal the reasons behind traumatic event. As human beings are built for communication, we aim to understand, and be understood. Psychoanalysis, or at least the dominant version of it, has been denounced as patriarchal or phallocentric by some proponents of feminist theory. Evaluating the Criticisms of Psychoanalysis In his "Précis of The Foundations of Psychoanalysis: A Philosophical Critique," Grünbaum (1986) asserts that "while psychoanalysis may thus be said to be scientifically alive, it is currently hardly well" (p. 228). Many authors have attempted to integrate the various theories, with limited success. The idea of unconscious, and the transference phenomenon, have been widely researched and, it is claimed, validated in the fields of cognitive psychology and social psychology (Westen & Gabbard 2002), though a Freudian interpretation of unconscious mental activity is not held by the majority of cognitive psychologists. Freud’s psychology based analysis of Michelangelo’s Moses has received attention from several critics. The IPa analysts responded accusing the Lacan school of “intellectual terrorism”. For one, Freud's theory says that personality development occurs during childhood, but many modern psychologists say that this development is lifelong. Freud remained silent on the subject, even in his lengthy analysis of the Schreber case." Ambitious interpretations of literary works as symptoms betraying the authors' neuroses are found in ‘psychobiographies’ of writers, such as Marie Bonaparte's Edgar Poe (1933), which diagnoses sadistic necrophilia as the problem underlying Poe's tales. Both Freud and psychoanalysis have been criticized in very extreme terms. Strong criticism of certain forms of psychoanalysis is offered by psychoanalytical theorists. Psychoanalytic reading has been practiced since the early development of psychoanalysis itself, and has developed into a heterogeneous interpretive tradition. Others find his analysis flawed based on Biblical references. Evaluating the Criticisms of Freud's Theory of Psychoanalysis Kristen M. Beystehner Northwestern University. As Trilling and others have objected, this approach risks reducing art to pathology. The purpose of Derrida’s analysis is not to refute Freud, which would only reaffirm traditional metaphysics, but to reveal an undecidability at the heart of his project. in order to illuminate aspects of literature in its connection with conflicting psychological states. Given these many valid criticisms of psychoanalytic theory, it is probably wise to approach Freud and his theories with a grain of salt. Hans Eysenck determined that improvement was no greater than spontaneous remission. These tensions are the conditions upon which Freud’s work can operate. Here the question is why certain kinds of story have such a powerful appeal to us, and numerous answers have been given in Freudian terms, usually focusing on the overcoming of fears (as in Gothic fiction) or the resolution of conflicting desires (as in comedy and romance). TS: "Kraus was opposed to involuntary mental hospitalization, at least in some instances. Psychoanalysis is the used in medical knowledge to cure people from mental disorders while psychoanalytic criticism use as a technique of psychoanalysis to describe literary work. However, with the publication of the Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual much of this lack of cohesion has been resolved. Ricoeur claimed that psychoanalysis emphasizes the polyvocal or many-voiced qualities of language, focusing on utterances that mean more than one thing. Show Less. 1. Some post-colonialists argue that psychoanalysis imposes a white, European model of human development on those without European heritage, hence they will argue Freud’s theories are a form or instrument of intellectual imperialism. Page | 18 Criticism of Freud’s system of psychoanalysis: Although Freud’s work in the study of human behaviour is compared with the discovery of Copernicus that the earth is not the centre of the universe or with the Darwin’s theory of Evolution, yet it came for severe criticism during and after his life time. One response to this state of affairs is to argue that psychoanalytic theory itself has evolved since Freud, and that it is therefore unfair to bind psychoanalysis so tightly to the Freudian vision of repressed infantile sexual and aggressive urges, symbolically represented in dreams, errors, and symptoms, and revealed on the couch through free association. Jung’s analytical psychology is an elaborate explanation of human nature that combines ideas from history, mythology, anthropology and religion (Schultz & … In fact, many contemporary psychologists view psychoanalysis with skepticism.