[16] Black-eyed pea, a common name used for the unguiculata cultivar group, describes the presence of a distinctive black spot at the hilum of the seed. [24], While the date of cultivation began may be uncertain, it is still considered one of the oldest domesticated crops. Usage Frequency: 12 The low temperature should allow apple seeds to remain viable for 100 years, barley for 300 years, and cowpea seeds for about 800 years. Estimating world cowpea production is rather difficult, as it is usually grown in a mixture with other crops, but according to a 1997 estimate, cowpeas are cultivated on 12.5 million hectares (31 million acres) and have a worldwide production of 3 million tonnes. It requires very few inputs, as the plant's root nodules are able to fix atmospheric nitrogen, making it a valuable crop for resource-poor farmers and well-suited to intercropping with other crops. Genetically modified cowpeas are being developed to express the cry protein from Bacillus thuringiensis, which is toxic to lepidopteran species including the maruca. (Sa Ehipto, ang diyos-araw na si Ra ay inilalarawan kung minsan bilang isang guya na isinilang ng makalangit na baka.) a cowpea plant. The grains contain 25% protein and several vitamins and minerals. It grows best in regions with an annual rainfall between 400 and 700 mm (16 and 28 in). [17], A large morphological diversity is found within the crop, and the growth conditions and grower preferences for each variety vary from region to region. [18] Cowpeas can either be short and bushy (as short as 20 cm or 8 in) or act like a vine by climbing supports or trailing along the ground (to a height of 2 m or 6 ft 7 in). [73] In some tradition cropping methods, the yield can be as low as 100 kilograms per hectare (0.045 short ton/acre). Leaves can be picked from 4 weeks after planting. [5], M. vitrata causes the most damage to the growing cowpea due to their large host range and cosmopolitan distribution. Adam D. Steinbrenner, Maria Muñoz-Amatriaín, Antonio F. Chaparro, Jessica Montserrat Aguilar-Venegas, Sassoum Lo, Satohiro Okuda, Gaetan Glauser, Julien Dongiovanni, Da Shi, Marlo Hall, Daniel Crubaugh, Nicholas Holton, Cyril Zipfel, Ruben Abagyan, Ted C. J. Turlings, Timothy J. [12][15], The first written reference of the word 'cowpea' appeared in 1798 in the United States. COWPEA: Post-harvest Operations Page 4 Fig. [41], Severe C. maculatus infestations can affect 100% of the stored peas and cause up to 60% loss within a few months. [11] All cultivated cowpeas are found within the universally accepted V. unguiculata subspecies unguiculata classification, which is then commonly divided into four cultivar groups: unguiculata, biflora, sesquipedalis, and textilis. [24] Although there is no archaeological evidence for early cowpea cultivation, the centre of diversity of the cultivated cowpea is West Africa, leading an early consensus that this is the likely centre of origin and place of early domestication. Cowpea (severe) mosaic 86 Cowpea (yellow) mosaic 88 Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic 90 Cowpea golden mosaic 92 Parz.itic Higher Plants Witchweed 94 Non-Parasitic Disorders Calcium, magnesium and sulphur 96 deficiencies Molybdenum and iron deficiencies 98. ii Cowpeas were domesticated in Africa and are one of the oldest crops to be farmed. The corn, the coffee beans, the hen that laid the egg, and even the cow that produced the milk—all had their origin in the fauna and flora of the tropical forest. [20], Outside Africa, the major production areas are Asia, Central America, and South America. [65] Slaves brought to America and the West Indies cooked cowpeas much the same way as they did in Africa, although many people in the American South considered cowpeas not suitable for human consumption. "Bionomics, host plant resistance, and management of the legume pod borer, "Genetic Differentiation among Maruca vitrata F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Populations on Cultivated Cowpea and Wild Host Plants: Implications for Insect Resistance Management and Biological Control Strategies", "Pest management practices in cowpea: a review", "Effects of Transgenic Cry1Ac + CpTI Cotton on Non-Target Mealybug Pest, "Screening for Drought Tolerance in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) at Seedling Stage under Screen House Condition", "Diversity of Drought Tolerance in the Genus Vigna", "Africa Imports - African Recipes - Red-Red Stew", "The Long and the Short of Yard-Long Beans", Cowpea research at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Network for Genetic Improvement of Cowpea for All (NGICA), Consensus Document on Compositional Considerations for New Varieties of COWPEA (Vigna unguiculata): Key Food and Feed Nutrients, Anti-nutrients and Other Constituents, OECD Series on the Safety of Novel Foods and Feeds No. [62], Most cowpeas are grown on the African continent, particularly in Nigeria and Niger, which account for 66% of world cowpea production. [4] While they play a key role in subsistence farming and livestock fodder, the cowpea is also seen as a major cash crop by Central and West African farmers, with an estimated 200 million people consuming cowpea on a daily basis. [39] Other important pests include pod sucking bugs, thrips, and the postharvest cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus. It originated and was domesticated in Southern Africa and was later moved to East and West Africa and Asia. As well as an important source of food for humans in poor, arid regions, the crop can also be used as feed for livestock. Usage Frequency: 1 ), an annual legume, is also commonly referred to as southern pea, blackeye pea, crowder pea, lubia, niebe, coupe or frijole. [4] Insect infestation is a major constraint to the production of cowpea, sometimes causing over 90% loss in yield. [49] The cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV), discovered in 1959, has become a useful research tool. The cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an annual herbaceous legume from the genus Vigna. Moreover Var. Usually yellow when ripe, but may also be brown or purple in colour. [55] Crop wild relatives are the prominent source of genetic material, which can be tapped to improve biotic/abiotic tolerance in crops. A second domestication event probably occurred in Asia, before they spread into Europe and the Americas. The whole plant is used as forage for animals, with its use as cattle feed likely responsible for its name. It is estimated that cowpea supplies about 40% of the daily protein requirements to most of the people in Nigeria (Muleba ., 1997). Central leaflet is hastate, symmetrical, smooth, with the lateral surfaces irregular. Dr. Jerry Nboyine, principal investigator on the Bt cowpea project, explained in a Ghana media briefing that Maruca attacks cowpea plants at the … The crop is mainly grown for its seeds, which are high in protein, although the leaves and immature seed pods can also be consumed. [48] Common diseases include blights, root rot, wilt, powdery mildew, root knot, rust and leaf spot. [69] Cowpea starch is digested more slowly than the starch from cereals, which is more beneficial to human health. [38], Insects are a major factor in the low yields of African cowpea crops, and they affect each tissue component and developmental stage of the plant. The seeds are born in 3 to 6-inch (8–15 cm) long, slender, round, two-valved pods growing from the leaf axils. unguiculata (L.) Walp.Cowpea is often called "black-eyed pea" due to its black- or brown-ringed hylum. [71] The Sahel region also contains other major producers such as Burkina Faso, Ghana, Senegal, and Mali. The edible seed of these plants. Flower opening of cowpea begins between 6:00am and 6:30am and closes between 11:30am and 12:00pm. [44] The larvae burrow their way into the seed, feeding on the endosperm. (Hasskarl)", "Southern Peas - Gardening Solutions - University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences", "Niebe: A Food of Choice to Combat Hunger", "Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Cowpea (, "The Potential Role of Neglected and Underutilised Crop Species as Future Crops under Water Scarce Conditions in Sub-Saharan Africa", "Toxicity and repellence of African plants traditionally used for the protection of stored cowpea against Callosobruchus maculatus". [23] A pod can contain six to 13 seeds that are usually kidney-shaped, although the seeds become more spherical the more restricted they are within the pod. Cowpea can fix up to 88 kg N/ha (Fatokun et. Hypernym: cowpea. Generally, 133,000 seeds are planted per hectare (54,000/acre) for the erect varieties and 60,000 per hectare (24,000/acre) for the climbing and trailing varieties. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) [40] Biological control has had limited success, so most preventive methods rely on the use of agrichemicals. Cowpea is a dicotyledonous plant belonging to the family Fabaceae and sub-family, Fabiodeae. Cowpea Production: Cowpea is a leguminous plant that is rich in protein, fibre and other important elements such as calcium, magnesium, phosphorous, thiamine, niacin, riboflavin, pantothenic acid, vitamins A, C, and B6. [21] Flower colour varies through different shades of purple, pink, yellow, and white and blue. They can have a smooth or rough coat and be speckled, mottled, or blotchy. Flowers are in axillary racemes on stalks 15 to 30 centimeters long. [36] Temperatures of 60 °C (140 °F) kill the weevil larvae, leading to a recent push to develop cheap forms of solar heating that can be used to treat stored grain. Farms vary between 5 and 12 ha, usually split into near fields and far fields (the better to catch scattered showers), which involves a lot of toing and fro-ing. MyMemory is the world's largest Translation Memory. Most cowpeas are grown on the African continent, particularly in Nigeria and Niger, which account for 66% of world production. It originated and was domesticated in Southern Africa and was later moved to East and West Africa and Asia. It has been created collecting TMs from the European Union and United Nations, and aligning the best domain-specific multilingual websites. al., 2002) and in an effective cowpea-rhizobium symbiosis, more than155 kg N/ha is fixed which can supply 8090% - of plants total N requirement. black - eyed pea ( plural black-eyed peas ) An African leguminous plant, of the species Vigna unguiculata, widely cultivated as food and forage, specifically Vigna unguiculata subsp. USDA PLANTS ID: VIUN African Plant Database ID: 148510 New Zealand Organisms Register ID: b6b34a3e-e6a7-4f89-b286-2865e2c8fbc8 EPPO Code: VIGSI iNaturalist taxon ID: 122898 Calflora ID: 9425 Plants of the World online ID: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:1127257-2 IRMNG ID: 11374104 This short article about biology can be made longer. Walp. [50] CPMV is stable and easy to propagate to a high yield, making it useful in vector development and protein expression systems. Two lateral leaves are asymmetrical. Introduction. [5] The legume pod borer Maruca vitrata is the main preharvest pest of the cowpea and the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus the main postharvest pest. [50] One of the plant's defenses against some insect attacks is the cowpea trypsin inhibitor (CpTI). Reference: Wikipedia, Last Update: 2013-08-11 [68] A seed can consist of 25% protein and has very low fat content. Reference: Wikipedia, Last Update: 2011-03-04 The black-eyed pea is an example. It is a valuable crop as it is a highly palatable food source and the whole plant can be used as forage for animals. The leaves of The whole plant is used as forage for animals, with its use as cattle feed likely responsible for its name. 47 Figure 8: Mean pod length for medium maturing cowpea germplasm. [5] The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata, is the main preharvest pest of the cowpea. The seeds are usually cooked and made into stews and curries, or ground into flour or paste. 2. Introduction and Importance of Cowpea: Cowpea crop is a Kharif legume crop and is grown across India for seeds, green pods, animal fodder, and organic green manure. [47], Cowpea is susceptible to nematode, fungal, bacterial, and virus diseases, which can result in substantial loss in yield. Due to its tolerance for sandy soil and low rainfall, it is an important crop in the semiarid regions across Africa and Asia. [45] An individual bruchid can lay 20–40 eggs, and in optimal conditions, each egg can develop into a reproductively active adult in 3 weeks. Vigna unguiculata is a member of the Vigna (peas and beans) genus. A high level of morphological diversity is found within the species with large variations in the size, shape, and structure of the plant. 4 The International Board for Plant Genetic Resources (IBPGR) is an autonomous, international scientific organization under the aegis of the Consultative Group on Cowpea is an annual herb and is commonly cultivated mainly for its protein-rich seeds. [59] Cowpeas can be prepared in stews, soups, purees, casseroles and curries. There are roughly 6–13 seeds per pod growing within spongy tissue. [37] One of the more recent developments is the use a cheap, reusable double-bagging system (called PICs) that asphyxiates the cowpea weevils. [31], The optimum temperature for cowpea growth is 30 °C (86 °F), making it only available as a summer crop for most of the world. Quality: Graphic design of a cowpea plant Fruits are pods that vary in size, shape, colour and texture. [62] Although little research has been conducted on the nutritional value of the leaves and immature pods, what is available suggests that the leaves have a similar nutritional value to black nightshade and sweet potato leaves, while the green pods have less antinutritional factors than the dried seeds. Place the seeds in the holes, with the eye facing downwards. Use a simple tool like a stick to make appropriate planting holes. Reference: Wikipedia, Last Update: 2011-08-16 [34], Storage of the seeds can be problematic in Africa due to potential infestation by postharvest pests. [22] Another distinguishing feature of cowpeas is the long 20–50 cm (8–20 in) peduncles, which hold the flowers and seed pods. is one of the most popular grain legumes in Africa as well as in some regions of America and Asia.The main subspecies is Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. [13] From there they traveled north to the Mediterranean, where they were used by the Greeks and Romans. However, Insects visiting cowpea flowers have been implicated in the movement of pollen from one cowpea plant to another. Rar. The ideal soils are sandy and it has better tolerance for infertile and acid soil than most other crops. Over time, cowpeas became more universally accepted and now Hoppin' John is seen as a traditional Southern dish ritually served on New Year's Day. Quality: unguiculata . Exact figures for cowpea production are hard to come up with as it is not a major export crop. [46] The most common methods of protection involve the use of insecticides, the main pesticides used being carbamates, synthetic pyrethoids, and organophosphates. [64] They also use the cowpea paste as a supplement in infant formula when weaning babies off milk. It is grown extensively in the low lands and mid- altitude regions of Africa (particularly in the dry savanna) sometimes as sole crop but more often intercropped with … [62] Chinese long beans can be eaten raw or cooked, but as they easily become waterlogged are usually sautéed, stir-fried, or deep-fried.[63]. Cowpea Farming – A Step by Step Guide. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Leaves are trifoliate, 2.5 to 12.5 centimeters long. Jav. Close, Alisa Huffaker, and Eric A. Schmelz: This page was last edited on 6 December 2020, at 10:01. [21], Compared to most other important crops, little is known about the domestication, dispersal, and cultivation history of the cowpea. [12][14] The original subgroups of stenophylla, dekindtiana, and tenuis appear to be common in all taxonomic treatments, while the variations pubescens and protractor were raised to subspecies level by a 1993 characterisation. [58] Like other legumes, cowpeas are cooked to make them edible, usually by boiling. [53] Drought lowers the growth rate and development, ultimately reducing yield, although cowpea is considered more drought tolerant than most other crops. [35] More modern methods include storage in airtight containers, using gamma irradiation, or heating or freezing the seeds. Characterization, evaluation and selection of cowpea germplasm accessions is a pre-requisite in any plant breeding programme. [32], These characteristics, along with its low fertilisation requirements, make the cowpea an ideal crop for resource-poor farmers living in the Sahel region of West Africa. Ang mababang temperatura ay magpapangyari sa mga buto ng mansanas na manatiling nabubuhay sa loob ng 100 taon, ang sebada ng 300 taon, at ang mga buto ng cowpea … [29] This makes them a particularly important crop in arid, semidesert regions where not many other crops will grow. [27] In 2300 BC, the cowpea is believed to have made its way into Southeast Asia, where secondary domestication events may have occurred. Koku hopes to cultivate GM cowpea on her farm this year, saying the importance of an insect-resistant variety, which reduces pesticide use, can’t be overstated. [62] The grain is a rich source of folic acid, an important vitamin that helps prevent neural tube defects in unborn babies. (Vigna unguiculata) Cowpea is a food and animal feed crop grown in the semi-arid tropics covering Africa, Asia, Europe, the United States, and Central and South America. The kidney-shaped seeds are white with a black mark around the scar that marks the point of … [56] International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Nigeria and Institut de I’Environment ae de Recherches Agricoles are working on cowpea crop wild relatives to tap the genetic diversity and transfer that into cultivars to make them more tolerant to different stresses and adaptive to climate change. By continuing to visit this site you agree to our use of cookies. We use cookies to enhance your experience. [13][25], Cowpeas thrive in poor dry conditions, growing well in soils up to 85% sand. The cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an annual herbaceous legume from the genus Vigna. Being developed to express the cry protein from Bacillus thuringiensis, which cause cowpea plant in tagalog green mosaic pattern to in... Crop for cows the most damage to the production of cowpeas for dry seed 24 ] outside., insect pressure is responsible for its name closes between 11:30am and 12:00pm and eggs! 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